The first systematic tests of tensile and compressive strength took place in Germany
Dr. J. A. Brinell invented the "Brinell Test" in Sweden
Prof. K. Gaede (Hannover, Germany) reported on the use of a spring driven impactor to supply the force to drive a steel ball into the concrete.
J. P. Williams (England) reported on a spring-loaded, pistol shaped device, in which a 4-mm ball was attached to a plunger.
The idea for "Pullout Tests" originated in Soviet Union.
D. G. Skramtajev, of the Central Institute for Industrial Building Research, Moscow published a paper stating 14 different techniques for measuring the in-place strength of concrete.
T. C. Powers, of Portland Cement Association, reported the use of Resonant Frequency Testing to establish the modulus of elasticity of concrete.
The resonant frequency method became the 1st non-destructive test to be standardize by ASTM
First report on correlation between pullout force and companion cylinder strength was made by Tremprer in USA.
A tentative test method for measuring the "Transverse Resonant Frequency" of test specimens was published. (ASTM C 215-47T)
Soniscope an "Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity" method was developed at the Portland Cement Association, USA in cooperation with Ontario Hyrdo.
Ernst Schmidt, a Swiss engineer, developed a device for testing concrete based upon the rebound principle populerly known as "Rebound Hammer.
Nurse & Saul described the "Maturity Method" a technique to estimate strength development of concrete during its curing period by measuring the temperature history of the concrete. (Time-Temperature Factor).
Development of "Probe Penetration" test system as a joint understaking by T. R. Cantor of the Port of New York Authority and R. Koph of the Windsor Machinery Co. which was commercialised as "Windsor Probe"
A tentative method of "Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity" method was adopted by ASTM (ASTM C 597 67-T)
The British Standards Institution included the "Rebound Hammer" method in its standard
R. Johansen at the Cement and Concrete Research Institute is Norway developed "Break-off Test" which measured the force required to break off a cylindrical core from the concrete mass.
A tentative method of "Rebound Hammer" was adopted by ASTM (ASTM C 805 75-T)
The "Probe Penetration / Windsor Probe" test method was adopted as a tentative ASTM Standard (C 803-75T)
The classic monograph of non-destructive testing of concrete was published
The first analytical study to explain the relationship between compressive strength and the ultimate pullout load was published.
Freiesleben Hansen and Pedersen proposed a new function to compute a maturity index from the recorded temperature history of the concrete.
ASTM adopted a tentative test method for the "Pullout Test" (ASTM C 900-78T)
"Post-installed Pullout Tests" test method was introduced.
Method for developing early age compression test values and projecting later age strengths was standardised. (ASTM C 918)
ASTM adopted a standard practice on the use of the "Maturity Method" to estimate concrete strength (ASTM C 1074).
In-place methods to Estimate Concrete Strength was included in ACI 228
The "Break-off Test" method was standardised by ASTM (ASTM C 1150)
Center for Transportation Research at Univ. of Texas at Austin concluded “Of all the test methods studied, the maturity method exhibited the lowest variability and most consistent agreement with the generally-accepted standards for concrete testing. Of all the test methods evaluated, the maturity method was found to be the only one that provided reliable data comparable in variability and consistency to those obtained from standard quality control. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the currently available concrete testing practices, which may aid in evaluating and estimating the strength of concrete in the field, particularly at early ages before the standard 28-day cylinder strength or the 7-day beam strength is available.”
The "Pull-off Test" method was incorporated into British Standard 1881-Part 207.
Guidelines for Timing Contraction, Joint Sawing, and Earliest Loading for Concrete Pavements. Okamoto, P.A. et al Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center, FHWA
Maturity of Concrete: Field Implementation, MLR-96-1, Iowa Department of Transportation concluded, “The use of maturity may reduce project construction time."
FHWA-SA-97-105 (Crawford) Federal Highway Administration recommended maturity, stating, “The maturity method is a useful, easily-implemented, accurate means of estimating in-situ concrete strength. In a time when public agencies and contractors are concerned with escalating costs and shrinking budgets, this method provides a viable means of reducing costs through testing and scheduling. Also quality assurance cost can be reduced because the number of cylinders is reduced by using the maturity concept.”
National Institute of Standards and Testing (NIST), Carino, N.J. and Lew, H.S. published "The Maturity Method: From Theory to Application"
Using Concrete Maturity for QA/QC, Tikalskky, P.J. et al University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University
International Code Council (ICC), David A. Bowman, P.E. Manager, Standards Codes and Standards Development - letter addressed to Nomadics Construction Labs, “…therefore, any provision contained in ACI 318 that are applicable to the issue are provisions that must be considered part of the code, regardless of whether provision have been place directly into the model building code.”
The concept of Concrete Maturity was standardised by AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials) (T 325-04 - “Standard Method of Test for Estimating the Strength of Concrete in Transportation Construction by Maturity Tests.")